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I have issues with the traditional view of the Sea canada goose factory outlet Peoples, because there is a lot of slim detail being connected to Egyptian sources of the Late Bronze Age, and a lot of stuff based on etymology alone which is a really flimsy thing to base proof of cultural connections on. The elevation of the Sea Peoples from an Egyptian term for several migratory/aggressive peoples to a pan Mediterranean phenomenon is difficult to justify, it feels like a classic example of reading whatever you want into huge gaps.
canada goose parka uk That being said, it is clear that a lot was going on in the Late Bronze Age Mediterranean. Why were the commercial networks already slowing down before the Mycenaean collapse, why are so many urban centers around the Eastern Mediterranean burned or sacked or abandoned? We know that Mycenaeans were moving around, we do know the Egyptians were dealing with a lot of people they didn seem to have spent much time with before. We know that Arameans started moving into Assyria and Babylonia in a serious way, did that have anything to do with pressure from other peoples to their west and north? canada goose parka uk
canada goose outlet sale I think that if there any truth to the Sea Peoples concept, it has to be treated as a decentralised phenomenon, where not everyone and every culture involved was doing the same thing for the same reasons, and where there was no co ordination between the different parties. Some might have been raiders, some might have been conquerors, some might have been refugees, some might have been settlers, some might have been migrating. Some might have been a combination of the above. canada goose outlet sale
official canada goose outlet In that respect, yes, I could see some Mycenaeans forming part of the phenomenon of Gods why is literally everyone in the Mediterranean doing this please stop The same ambiguity can be brought up about the known Mycenaean settlements in Cyprus; did they start as conquests, or as legitimate settlements? Did later migratory waves come as refugees, or to seek better wealth, or to conquer lands in Cyprus as they were finding themselves kicked out of Greece? official canada goose outlet
canada goose outlet online uk That the Sea Peoples as a grand, snowballing accident, where migrations, conquests, raids, piracy all feed off one another as various societies are economically cut off, conquered, or collapse. That my take on it, and if that the truth of it then it hard not to see the Mycenaeans as part of it, especially now we can see a wider pattern of movement in the eastern mediterranean in this era. canada goose outlet online uk
Part the Second
canada goose victoria parka outlet We can also evidence that all the Mycenaeans didn stay in Greece during this time. It’s been suggested for some time that Mycenaean exiles/refugees/adventurers settled the island of Cyprus during the Collapse, probably coming to existing sites (the sites in question might have been trading ports, colonies, settlements, the evidence is highly ambiguous) already on the island. As these Greek speaking populations formed a sustained Greek culture on the island, it’s considered likely that this migration happened in multiple waves (almost no migration, particularly in these periods, is a single massive lump), and archaeological evidence seems to agree with this conclusion. Pamphylia, in southern Anatolia, was already an area with a Greek speaking population by the Archaic era, and the Pamphylian language does seem to be related to Mycenaean Greek, if not descended from directly then descended from a close relative. But recently it’s been suggested that there may also have been Mycenaean settlement in the Levant (via Cyprus and Anatolia), and in particular that they may lie behind the origin of the Philistines. This has become a more accepted theory recently because there is a rich layer of Aegean material culture (and imitations) at the sites of most traditionally Philistine cities, dating from the 12th century BCE onwards. canada goose victoria parka outlet
canada goose jacket outlet sale To draw this all together, we can talk about a Mycenaean collapse in which the social and economic glue that held a number of states together came apart. This could have been due to a non exhaustive combination of plague (mentioned by Hittite contemporary sources as a problem among their military and in their cities), foreign invasions/raids (Egyptian, Ugaritic, Akkadian sources all indicate movements of peoples across the Mediterranean and nearby regions), internal conflict (some of the later Linear B texts refer to mobilising troops to deal with unspecified enemies, the continuity of material culture and total nature of palatial abandonment might suggest local populations had something to do with it), economic instability (evidence suggests a dip in the pan Mediterranean trade network even before the period of Collapse). It was certainly connected to wider trends in the Mediterranean, with the near simultaneous collapse of the Hittite state, the massive contraction of the Babylonian and Assyrian states, dynastic collapse in Egypt. It seems to have become impractical or undesirable to live in large urban environments in the former palatial states/kingdoms afterwards. No massive cultural displacement took place, but a number of specialised arts and crafts fell out of use, probably because they needed a complex economy to support or they simply weren’t feasible for these populations to maintain. It’s entirely possible Linear B literacy died out simply because of how few scribes there were, how limited its use was, and its lack of use outside of the highly bureaucratic palaces. canada goose jacket outlet sale
canada goose outlet eu Eventually, after generations had passed, people began to move on. Perhaps, with the reemergence of complex material techniques, the old styles and objects were associated with being crude, and the environment was ripe for change. The association of various places with power, as seen across the history of Greek mythology and historical works, seems to have official canada goose outlet persisted, but the understanding of their particular origins and significance was canada goose jacket outlet forgotten, and what history was remembered was so hopelessly combined with legendary elements that it’s impossible to assume any of it was accurate. The dilemma of how much the Iliad and Odyssey represent the actual Mycenaean society, as opposed to Greek society when the epics were composed (and even bits and pieces of the 6th century BCE when the Iliad text was standardised in Athens), is a big one when we attempt to put the boat out in reconstructing Mycenaean society. Mycenaean tombs were remembered as the tombs of Greek heroes, their great walls associated with Cyclops and giants (hence the term Cyclopean Walls used in English). Bit by bit, a new tradition of complex urban life was built in Greece, the model that eventually led to the polis that is most associated with the Greeks by subsequent history. The later Greek culture, by the time they were once again producing texts, was never even aware that they had experienced a ‘Dark Age’, as we term it. canada goose outlet eu
To put it simply, if the Mycenaeans are the states, their rulers, the particulars of their elite culture, then they became unable to deal with circumstances, or became surplus to requirements. If the Mycenaeans are canada goose outlet shop the people of these societies and cultures, then they continued to live, and found other ways of doing that which didn’t refer back to the places that once dominated their lives.
canada goose outlet edmonton The Bronze Age Aegean is a difficult period of history to glimpse into, because it has just enough contextual material to intrigue and not enough to answer the many thoughts that come to mind. There are basic questions about ‘the Mycenaeans’, as we call them, that are difficult to answer and may never be satisfactorily answered. This applies equally to the collapse of their complex states and the fading away of their distinctive culture. canada goose outlet edmonton
canada goose outlet montreal To understand what happened to them, archaeologists and historians of this period sieve through a very limited pool of sources to find anything that might give information. This makes a lot of their conclusions necessarily cautious, or heavily caveated, even about simple things like ‘what is going on here’ and ‘what are we looking at’. The concensus on the subject changes frequently because of how big an impact new interpretations and evidence can make, since we have so little to go on. For example, I feel like my answer that Bentresh linked in another comment to is simplistic in places and outdated in others, and that’s something I only wrote in 2012 (though in internet years that’s a long time ago). canada goose outlet montreal
canada goose outlet official Collapse, genuine collapse of complex society, is relatively rare in historical eras. We’re not talking about a matter of conquest, or a state breaking up, but a sudden and massive shift in political organisation, economic specialisation, population levels, the use of technologies, and much more besides. There is an entire historical discipline based around the study of collapse, drawing on the known historical examples. An important lesson from that discipline is that drastic collapses are compound events that never boil down to a single event or factor. For any one potential reason a society collapsed, we can evidence many others who experienced similar events and who withstood the events canada goose outlet sale in question. When thinking of plague, canada goose outlet new york city to pick the example you brought up, think how many European states endured the Black Death and continued to exist, despite the deaths of so many (in some https://www.winterdownparkas.com countries perhaps half their population died), or other canada goose black friday sale deadly epidemics. This is a sensible approach to take with the Mycenaeans, especially because of the very patchy nature of the evidence, and how circumstantial a number of bits are. I’m canada goose outlet jackets going to proceed with the assumption that there canada goose outlet online is no one primary factor or silver bullet in identifying why the Mycenaeans collapsed, and exactly what happened to them. canada goose outlet official
canada goose outlet uk sale So let’s talk about what we do know. We know that Mycenaean society was politically and economically centered around complex urban locations that canada goose outlet canada we tend to call palaces. Those palaces had a complex bureaucracy, with scribes using a modified version of Cretan Linear A script (known as Linear B), appointed officials with specific duties, military leaders with particular functions and responsibilities. In most cases we are fairly certain the palaces were the capitals of various smaller kingdoms or were at the head of semi independent states attached to larger ones. We also know that across a 25 year period, covering the end of the 13th century BCE and the beginning of the 12th, every palace that has been excavated was either abandoned or burned to the ground. There were almost no contemporary attempts to resettle or rebuild these palaces, though their walls and defensive locations were often reused by later Greek communities. In fact that are very few complex buildings known at all from the periods immediately after the Mycenaean collapse. This is accompanied by an abrupt halt to the existence of Linear B texts, a script which is never picked up again, nor a script that the later Greeks could read. canada goose outlet uk sale
canada goose outlet website legit In the Mycenaean era, the visible population distribution and size of urban areas was seemingly comparable to that of Greece in later eras canada goose outlet black friday of prosperity. We can evidence complex crafts like shipbuilding, chariot making, and almost industrial scale linen weaving, along with the aforementioned political complexity to match. Mycenaean graves and art indicate the presence of luxury trade goods from many other Mediterranean regions, and the remains of Mycenaean goods have been found across the Mediterranean, not to mention anchors from Mycenaean ships. In the period associated with the destruction/abandonment of the palaces and its aftermath, the visible population of Greece reduces to 1/8th of its previous size. Not by 1/8th, to 1/8th. This can be a little misleading as this can also reflect a change in settlement patterns rather than simply death. If that is what we’re seeing, then it reflects a mass movement of populations away from urban areas and towards the countryside, which itself represents a massive event. The complex crafts and industries of the Mycenaean era can’t be evidenced in the period that follows, accompanying a lack of art showing these activities taking place. The intense pan Mediterranean trade of the Mycenaean era slows, and in some cases ceases completely, in the late 13th and then 12th centuries BCE. This latter phenomenon is true for most of the Mediterranean at this time. canada goose outlet website legit
canada goose outlet phone number The language represented by Linear B is a Hellenic one, which is termed Mycenaean. We cannot automatically treat Linear B texts as meaning a Greek speaking majority in that area, particularly as so many come from Knossos at the heart of Minoan Crete, but all areas that Linear B have canada goose outlet toronto factory been found in are areas with Greek populations in the Archaic Classical eras. Mycenaean Greek is not ancestral to most of the later Hellenic languages and not at all to Modern Greek. For example, the Dorian languages and canada goose outlet uk Ionian languages (including Attic) are Hellenic but from different branches of that family to Mycenaean, meaning that populations speaking different Greek languages already existed during the Mycenaean era and almost certainly before it. A number of deities familiar to the later Greeks can be evidenced in the Linear B texts, some more haphazardly than others, but there are some deities that are not found in Archaic Classical Greek practice, and some important later Greek deities that don’t appear in the extant Linear B corpus. In addition to the collapse of Linear B as a writing system, we also find that the later Greeks were totally unaware that they had ever possessed writing before their adapted Phoenician alphabet was developed. This coincides with a total lack of Greek knowledge about the existence of the Mycenaeans, or the fact that a ‘Dark Age’ had happened at all. There are certainly Greek stories and legends that are associated with the period, but these are considered to be the historical background to their own culture, not stories of a now vanished civilization. canada goose outlet phone number
canada goose outlet trillium parka black You can see the evidence clearly shows that something happened, or in fact many somethings. But it’s easy to spin whatever explanation you like on top of something with so little context, where the evidence is so easily interpreted. The traditional modern explanation for what happened to the Mycenaeans was that the Dorians, the ancestors of the Dorian speaking peoples of the Archaic and Classical world, came and conquered the Mycenaeans, and destroyed most of their civilization. This was because of the number of stories about Dorian migrations in Greek texts, and what they seemed to suggest about mythologising large shifts in Greek culture. Other explanations have included plague, an invasion of the Sea Peoples (which is a whole historical mess in its own right), or even climate change. But assuming that it was a complex event with many, many factors takes the pressure away from finding the one golden explanation, and reduces the need to cherry pick evidence for a pet theory. canada goose outlet trillium parka black
We can also complicate this picture with things puncturing the older idea of the Mycenaean Collapse, where the civilization vanished overnight with no trace of any kind. Despite how many complex crafts vanished not all of them did, and we can still evidence things like ceramics being made in the Mycenaean style for over a century after this period where the palace system collapsed, albeit usually in a less accomplished style. This is called the Submycenaean period, with the birth of a new style coming with what we term the Proto Geometric in the mid 11th century BCE. In other words, the trappings canada goose outlet of Mycenaean material culture were still being made and produced for at least a century after the Collapse had happened. We can also find exceptions to the general rule of urban abandonment, and lack of complex buildings in general, if we turn to areas that never had palaces to begin with. The understanding of which areas had no palaces may change as more sites are identified, but we are fairly sure that the lack of palaces in some parts of Greece was not accidental, and that the palace system represents a particular type of government/state that was not the only model being used at the time. Central Greece has, in the past few decades, begun to turn up evidence of larger structures that have continuity of use from the end of the Mycenaean era well into later periods, with the most famous example being the site of Lefkandi on the island of Euboia. Across the past two decades more and more of these areas of physical continuity have been found, with others including the sites of Mitrou, Kynos, and Elateia. I have no doubt that more will follow in the decades to come.
I have a pretty all encompassing love for history, but that is different, I found, to what I find compelled to study in depth. I have a tendency to get drawn to the marginal, to fusion societies, to periods and canada goose outlet store places of mutable cultural identity. But as I gotten deeper into these subjects, my interest in historiography has become a for me in its own right. You need historiography to contextualise arguments, to understand the development of a subject, but I also care about it in its own right. This has meant grappling with the enormous legacy of late 18th early 20th century imperial cultures on historical understanding in general, and the particular legacy of the British Empire especially.
I from Britain, have lived there my whole life, and identity culturally as British. Our education system neglect of any wide survey of the Empire prior to university level certainly affected the evolution of my response to imperial academia. On the other hand, I also have a critical tendency towards my own society, and the fact that I identify as British rather than with one of the constituent nations in particular marks me out against the normal trend. I a Londoner too, the self proclaimed capital of multiculturalism in the UK. But I am, at the end of the day, a Brit trying to keep better perspective whilst still inside the structures the Empire built or renewed. I always conscious that I am never going to be the final word. In fact, that notion that history is a subject that continually renews itself is what drives me towards the balance I seek in my argumentation. I want to be strong in my opinions but overt about their nature, willing to explore unknowns but never to pretend to solve them definitively with such little evidence, and always to engage with a historical discipline directly rather than through the medium of others commenting on it. I don want to make myself obsolete, and I don want to be a noncommittal milquetoast either.
canada goose vest outlet The opinions about Empire and my strong opinions on how it negatively affected historical method can make it difficult to avoid raw polemic when canada goose outlet in usa dealing with sources from the British imperial academy, or those who heavily borrow from their style and ideas. I don at all think the critical perspective is wrong, but genuine historiographical method is to supplement it with general analysis, and it not impossible for polemic to prejudice you to seeing the roots of more utile and productive methodologies. Despite knowing all of this, it hard to keep the anger productive when you feel like this barely confronted leviathan has systematically rendered much of the world history obscure to it and the societies created from its colonial foundations canada goose vest outlet.